[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Volume 26, Issue 4 (2020) ::
Sci J Forensic Med 2020, 26(4): 239-245 Back to browse issues page
Psychological Factors Underlying and Perpetuating Violence in Abused Women; a Qualitative Study
C. Khajavi Segonbad1, A.A. Soleimanian *2, A. Heydarnia1
1- Department of Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnourd, Bojnourd, Iran
2- Department of Counseling, Faculty of Humanities, University of Bojnourd, Bojnourd, Iran , soliemanian@gmail.com
Abstract:   (313 Views)
Aims: Domestic violence against women is a public health problem and a clear example of human rights abuses in all societies, races, ethnicities and religions, with approximately 35% of women worldwide experiencing it at least once in their lifetime. The aim of this study was to identify the psychological characteristics of abused women through their lived experiences.
Instrument & Methods: This research was done by qualitative research method and phenomenological design. Participants included 12 abused women who had referred to the Forensic Medicine Center of Bojnourd in the winter of 2018 to complain about their husbands being beaten and injured. These individuals were selected by purposive sampling method and after completing the questionnaire of violence and assuring that violence had taken place, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with them. Data analysis was performed based on the steps of Dickelman analysis method.
Findings: In total, 5 main categories, 17 concepts and 173 basic codes were obtained. Woman Surrender Syndrome, Fear of Social Stigma, Sexual Problems and Conflicts, Low Self-Esteem and Learned Helplessness were extracted as the main categories of this study.
Conclusion: From the women's point of view, the presence of some psychological characteristics in them can be a predictor and perpetuator of the phenomenon of domestic violence against them. Surrender woman syndrome, fear of social stigma, sexual problems and conflicts, low self-esteem and learned helplessness can explain the violence and its persistence in these women.
Keywords: |Domestic Violence|Psychological Factors|Violent Women ,
Full-Text [PDF 328 kb]   (88 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Forensic Psychiatry
Received: 2020/11/23 | Accepted: 2021/02/21 | Published: 2021/02/27
* Corresponding Author Address: Bojnourd University, Bojnourd, North Khorasan, Iran. Postal code: 945315511
1. World health organization. Violence against women [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2014 [Cited 2017 Nov 29]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women. [Link]
2. World health organization. WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2005 [Unknown Cited]. Available from: https://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/violence/24159358X/en/. [Link]
3. Bott S, Guedes A, Ruiz-Celis AP, Mendoza JA. Intimate partner violence in the Americas: A systematic review and reanalysis of national prevalence estimates. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2019;43:26. [Link] [DOI:10.26633/RPSP.2019.26] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Vameghi M, Khodai Ardakani M, Sajadi S. Domestic violence in Iran: Review of 2001-2008 literature. Soc Welf Q. 2013;13(50):37-70. [Persian] [Link]
5. Shuib R, Endut N, Ali SH, Osman I, Abdullah S, Oon SW, et al. Domestic violence and women's well-being in Malaysia: Issues and challenges conducting a national study using the WHO multi-country questionnaire on women's health and domestic violence against women. Proced Soc Behav Sci. 2013;91:475-88. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.445]
6. World health organization. Violence against women, key facts [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2017 [Cited 2017 Nov 29]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/violence-against-women. [Link]
7. Yarinasab F, Amini K. Prevalence and types of violence against women seeking divorce referred to the Forensic Medicine Organization; A case study of Boyer-Ahmad County. Sci J Forensic Med. 2020;26(1):39-44. [Persian] [Link]
8. Yitbarek K, Woldie M, Abraham G. Time for action: Intimate partner violence troubles one third of Ethiopian women. PLoS One. 2019;14(5):0216962. [Link] [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0216962] [PMID] [PMCID]
9. Gautam S, Jeong HS. Intimate partner violence in relation to husband characteristics and women empowerment: Evidence from Nepal. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(5):709. [Link] [DOI:10.3390/ijerph16050709] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Chiang L, Howard A, Gleckel J, Ogoti C, Karlsson J, Hynes M, et al. Cycle of violence among young Kenyan women: The link between childhood violence and adult physical intimate partner violence in a population-based survey. Child Abuse Negl. 2018;84:45-52. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.07.010] [PMID] [PMCID]
11. Yohannes K, Abebe L, Kisi T, Demeke W, Yimer S, Feyiso M, et al. The prevalence and predictors of domestic violence among pregnant women in Southeast Oromia, Ethiopia. Reprod Health. 2019;16(1):37. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12978-019-0694-9] [PMID] [PMCID]
12. Nadda A, Malik JS, Bhardwaj AA, Khan ZA, Arora V, Gupta S, et al. Reciprocate and nonreciprocate spousal violence: A cross-sectional study in Haryana, India. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019;8(1):120-4. [Link] [DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_273_18] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Thobejane TD. Effects of gender-based violence towards young females: The case of Vhufuli village in Thohoyandou, Limpopo province South Africa. J Rev Glob Econ. 2019;8:53-62. [Link] [DOI:10.6000/1929-7092.2019.08.06]
14. Bacchus LJ, Ranganathan M, Watts C, Devries K. Recent intimate partner violence against women and health: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2018;8(7):1-20. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-019995] [PMID] [PMCID]
15. Esie P, Osypuk TL, Schuler SR, Bates LM. Intimate partner violence and depression in rural Bangladesh: Accounting for violence severity in a high prevalence setting. SSM Popul Health. 2019;7:100368. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.ssmph.2019.100368] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Kamimura A, Ganta V, Myers K, Thomas T. Intimate partner violence and physical and mental health among women utilizing community health services in Gujarat, India. BMC Women Health. 2014;14:127. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1472-6874-14-127] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Santaularia J, Johnson M, Hart L, Haskett L, Welsh E, Faseru B. Relationships between sexual violence and chronic disease: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:1286. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1286] [PMID] [PMCID]
18. Black MC. Intimate partner violence and adverse health consequences: Implications for clinicians. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2011;5(5):428-39. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/1559827611410265]
19. World health organization. Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2013 [Unknown Cited]. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241564625. [Link]
20. Kako DA, Gardi AH. Risk of suicide among women survived domestic violence in Erbil governorate. Erbil J Nurs Midwifery. 2019;2(1):34-43. [Link] [DOI:10.15218/ejnm.2019.05]
21. Guedes A, Bott S, Garcia-Moreno C, Colombini M. Bridging the gaps: A global review of intersections of violence against women and violence against children. Glob Health Action. 2016;9:31516. [Link] [DOI:10.3402/gha.v9.31516] [PMID] [PMCID]
22. Haj-Yahia MM. Implications of wife abuse and battering for self-esteem, depression, and anxiety as revealed by the second Palestinian national survey on violence against women. J Fam Issues. 2000;21(4):435-63. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/019251300021004002]
23. Lincoln YS, Guba EG. Naturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks: SAGE; 1985. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8]
24. Chester DS, DeWall CN. The roots of intimate partner violence. Curr Opin Psychol. 2018;19:55-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.04.009] [PMID]
25. Al-Krenawi A, Graham JR, Kandah J. Gendered utilization differences of mental health services in Jordan. Community Ment Health J. 2000;36(5):501-11. [Link] [DOI:10.1023/A:1001963714338] [PMID]
26. Lauber C, Rossler W. Stigma towards people with mental illness in developing countries in Asia. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2007;19(2):157-78. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/09540260701278903] [PMID]
27. Rai A, Choi YJ. Socio-cultural risk factors impacting domestic violence among south Asian immigrant women: A scoping review. Aggress Violent Behav. 2018;38:76-85. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.avb.2017.12.001]
28. Duran S, Eraslan ST. Violence against women: Affecting factors and coping methods for women. J Pak Med Assoc. 2019;69(1):53-7. [Link]
29. Baloushah S, Mohammadi N, Taghizadeh Z, Taha A, Farnam F. Learn to live with it: Lived experience of Palestinian women suffering from intimate partner violence. J Fam Med Prim Care. 2019;8(7):2332-6. [Link] [DOI:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_330_19] [PMID] [PMCID]
30. Both S, Everaerd WTAM, Laan E. Desire emerges from excitement: A psychophysiological perspective on sexual motivation. Psychophysiol Sex. 2007 Jan:327-39. [Link]
31. McCool-Myers M, Theurich M, Zuelke A, Knuettel H, Apfelbacher C. Predictors of female sexual dysfunction: A systematic review and qualitative analysis through gender inequality paradigms. BMC Women Health. 2018;18(1):108. [Link] [DOI:10.1186/s12905-018-0602-4] [PMID] [PMCID]
32. Allen CT, Swan SC, Raghavan C. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24(11):1816-34. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0886260508325496] [PMID]
33. Shayan A, Masoumi SZ, Kaviani M. Evaluation of sexual dysfunctions and its related factors in women experiencing domestic violence had been referred to forensic medicine center of Shiraz. J Educ Community Health. 2014;1(4):51-7. [Persian] [Link] [DOI:10.20286/jech-010451]
34. Leary MR, Baumeister RF. The nature and function of self-esteem: Sociometer theory. Adv Exp Soc Psychol. 2000;32:1-62. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0065-2601(00)80003-9]
35. Zust BL. Effect of cognitive therapy on depression in rural, battered women. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2000;14(2):51-63. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0883-9417(00)80020-5]
36. Matheson FI, Daoud N, Hamilton-Wright S, Borenstein H, Pedersen C, O'Campo P. Where did she go? the transformation of self-esteem, self-identity, and mental well-being among women who have experienced intimate partner violence. Women Health Issue. 2015;25(5):561-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2015.04.006] [PMID]
37. Papadakaki M, Tzamalouka GS, Chatzifotiou S, Chliaoutakis J. Seeking for risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) in a Greek national sample: The role of self-esteem. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24(5):732-50. [Link] [DOI:10.1177/0886260508317181] [PMID]
38. Eyo UE. Violence against women. Health Care Women Int. 2006;27(3):199-203. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/07399330500400564] [PMID]
39. Teaster FJ. Positive self-talk statements as a self-esteem building technique among female survivors of abuse [dissertation]. Toronto: School of Graduate Studies; 2004. [Link]
40. Walker LE. Battered woman. New York: HarperCollins; 2009. [Link]
Send email to the article author

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khajavi Segonbad C, Soleimanian A, Heydarnia A. Psychological Factors Underlying and Perpetuating Violence in Abused Women; a Qualitative Study. Sci J Forensic Med. 2020; 26 (4) :239-245
URL: http://sjfm.ir/article-1-1170-en.html

Volume 26, Issue 4 (2020) Back to browse issues page
مجله پزشکی قانونی Scientific Journal of Forensic Medicine
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.04 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4299