[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Volume 25, Issue 3 (2019) ::
Iran J Forensic Med 2019, 25(3): 113-119 Back to browse issues page
Occupational Exposure Rate of Staffs of Bushehr Forensic Medicine Toxicology Lab to Chloroform, Diethyl Ether and Ammonia
H. Hafizifard1, F. Moradi1, A. Kargarzadeh Ravari1, K. Ebrahimpour 2
1- Legal Medical Organization of Bushehr, Bushehr, Iran
2- Environmental Health Engineering Department, Health Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical sciences, Isfahan, Iran , k.najafabady@sbmu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (982 Views)
Aims: Ammonia, chloroform, and diethyl ether are the three most commonly used solvents in sample preparation and extraction processes in forensic laboratories (especially forensic toxicology laboratory). The staffs of these labs are notably exposure to these solvents. Exposure to these solvents can have deleterious effects, such as hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occupational exposure of Bushehr forensic laboratories staff to these solvents.
Materials & Methods: This experimental research was performed in a cross-sectional study in 2017. Sampling was conducted individually for two consecutive weeks using individual sampling pump and adsorbent tubes. Analysis the amount of chloroform and diethyl ether was conducted using gas Chromatography with flame-ionization detector, and analysis the amount of ammonia was conducted using Spectrophotometer at 660 nm. Weight-time averages of exposure were also calculated using the relevant formulas.
Findings: Weight-time averages of exposure to chloroform, diethyl ether and ammonia in the extraction section of the laboratory on days without sample extraction were 0.021, 0.0017 and 0.17ppm, respectively and on the days with sample extraction were 7.02 32.25 and 3.63ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference between the amount of staff exposure on the days of extraction and days without extraction (p<0.05). The weight-time average of exposure for all solvents (except chloroform) was less than their allowed limitation by the country.
Conclusion: However, exposure levels of staffs of forensic medical laboratories in Bushehr is lower than the allowed limitation by the country, but in some cases (especially chloroform), these exposures are at the warning range.
Keywords: Occupational exposure| Forensic laboratory| Chloroform| Ammonia| Diethyl ether ,
Full-Text [PDF 745 kb]   (159 Downloads)    
Article Type: Original Research | Subject: Forensic Toxicology
Received: 2019/02/23 | Accepted: 2019/07/8 | Published: 2019/09/21
English Expanded Abstract [HTML 16 KB]  (26 Download)
1. Guo H, Lee SC, Chan LY, Li WM. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environ Res. 2004;94(1):57-66. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/S0013-9351(03)00035-5]
2. Klein LW, Miller DL, Balter S, Laskey W, Haines D, Norbash A, et al. Occupational health hazards in the interventional laboratory: time for a safer environment. Radiology. 2009;250(2):538-44. [Link] [DOI:10.1148/radiol.2502082558] [PMID]
3. Ekenga CC, Parks CG, D'Aloisio AA, DeRoo LA, Sandler DP. Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting. Cancer Res. 2014;74(11):3076-83. [Link] [DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2430] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Kauppinen T, Pukkala E, Saalo A, Sasco AJ. Exposure to chemical carcinogens and risk of cancer among Finnish laboratory workers. Am J Ind Med. 2003;44(4):343-50. [Link] [DOI:10.1002/ajim.10278] [PMID]
5. Sheiner EK, Sheiner E, Hammel RD, Potashnik G, Carel R. Effect of occupational exposures on male fertility: literature review. Ind Health. 2003;41(2):55-62. [Link] [DOI:10.2486/indhealth.41.55] [PMID]
6. Wennborg H, Magnusson LL, Bonde JP, Olsen J. Congenital malformations related to maternal exposure to specific agents in biomedical research laboratories. J Occup Environ Med. 2005;47(1):11-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1097/01.jom.0000150237.67801.93] [PMID]
7. Hess-Kosa K. Indoor air quality: the latest sampling and analytical methods. 3rd Edition. Boca Raton: CRC press; 2018. [Link] [DOI:10.1201/9781315098180-1]
8. Lee D-G, Lee C-H, Jang K-H, Chae H-J, Moon J-D. A suspicious case of chloroform induced acute toxic hepatitis in laboratory worker. Korean J Occup Environ Med. 2012;24(3):304-10. [Link] [DOI:10.35371/kjoem.2012.24.3.304]
9. Neta G, Stewart PA, Rajaraman P, Hein MJ, Waters MA, Purdue MP, et al. Occupational exposure to chlorinated solvents and risks of glioma and meningioma in adults. Occup Environ Med. 2012;69(11):793-801. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/oemed-2012-100742] [PMID] [PMCID]
10. Zhang X, Lin S, Funk WE, Hou L. Environmental and occupational exposure to chemicals and telomere length in human studies. Postgrad Med J. 2013;89(1058):722-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/postgradmedj-2012-101350rep] [PMID]
11. Barrasa M, Lamosa S, Fernandez MD, Fernandez E. Occupational exposure to carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide on livestock farms in north-west Spain. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19(1):17-24. [Link]
12. Vizcaya D, Mirabelli MC, Antó JM, Orriols R, Burgos F, Arjona L, et al. A workforce-based study of occupational exposures and asthma symptoms in cleaning workers. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(12):914-9. [Link] [DOI:10.1136/oem.2010.063271] [PMID]
13. Raja DS, Sultana B. Potential health hazards for students exposed to formaldehyde in the gross anatomy laboratory. J Environ Health. 2012;74(6):36-40. [Link]
14. Ashley K. NIOSH Manual of analytical methods 5th edition and harmonization of occupational exposure monitoring. Gefahrst Reinhalt Luft. 2015;2015(1-2):7-16. [Link]
15. Mashkoori A, Bahrami A, Shahana FG, Zare Sakhvidi MJ, Koohpaei A, Mohammadbeigi A. Feasibility study for application of the marine coral powder as an adsorbent for Volatile Organic Hydrocarbons. Iran Jo Health Saf Environ. 2015;2(2):270-4. [Link]
16. Groves WA, Agarwal D, Chandra MJ, Reynolds SJ. Evaluation of a fluorometric method for measuring low concentrations of ammonia in ambient air. J Environ Monit. 2005;7(2):163-8. [Link] [DOI:10.1039/b411109e] [PMID]
17. ACGIH. TLVs and BEIs: Based on the documentation of the threshold limit values for chemical substances and physical agents & biological exposure indices. USA; American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; 2009. [Link]
18. Swartz ME, Krull IS. Analytical method development and validation. Boca Raton: CRC press; 2018. [Link]
19. Schenk L, Hansson SO, Rudén C, Gilek M. Occupational exposure limits: a comparative study. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2008;50(2):261-70. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2007.12.004] [PMID]
20. Fuente A, McPherson B. Central auditory damage induced by solvent exposure. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2007;13(4):391-7. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/10803548.2007.11105096] [PMID]
21. Sousa FW, Caracas IB, Nascimento RF, Cavalcante RM. Exposure and cancer risk assessment for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the hospitals, Fortaleza-Brazil. Build Environ. 2011;46(11):2115-20. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2011.04.006]
22. Dimitriou A, Tsoukali H. Risk assessment of chemicals in a toxicological laboratory: a case study. Global NEST J. 2006;8(3):330-4. [Link] [DOI:10.30955/gnj.000402]
23. Olin GR. The hazards of a chemical laboratory environment-a study of the mortality in two cohorts of Swedish chemists. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1978;39(7):557-62. [Link] [DOI:10.1080/0002889778507808] [PMID]
Send email to the article author

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Hafizifard H, Moradi F, Kargarzadeh Ravari A, Ebrahimpour K. Occupational Exposure Rate of Staffs of Bushehr Forensic Medicine Toxicology Lab to Chloroform, Diethyl Ether and Ammonia. Iran J Forensic Med. 2019; 25 (3) :113-119
URL: http://sjfm.ir/article-1-1014-en.html

Volume 25, Issue 3 (2019) Back to browse issues page
مجله پزشکی قانونی Scientific Journal of Forensic Medicine
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 31 queries by YEKTAWEB 4140